Hartsell Pool Renovations
Hartsell Pool Renovations
Hartsell Pool Renovations
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SWIMMING POOL CARE MADE EASY

Take   care   of   your   pool   and   it   will   provide   you   with   enjoyable   swimming   year   after   year. If   you   follow   the   basics   of   proper   chemical   treatment   and   filtration,pool   care   will   be   simple and easy to follow. This   section   will   guide   you   through   the   steps   you   should   take   from   pool   start-up,to   in- season   care,   to   winter   protection.   It   even   covers   important   tips   on   safetyaround   your   pool and contains a handy trouble-shooting guide. SIZING YOUR POOL You   must   know   the   amount   of   water   that   your   pool   holds   in   order   to   know   how   much chemical   to   use.   Here   is   a   simple   chart   to   figure   out   your   pool   volume.   All   measurements should be taken in feet. ROUND: Diameter  x   Diameter  x  Average Depth x 5.9 = Gallons RECTANGLE: Length  x   Width  x   Average Depth x 7.5 = Gallons OVAL: Long Dia.  x  Short Dia.  x  Average Depth  x  5.9 Gallons For all other pools ask your builder, retailer, or serviceman for help. FILTER SYSTEMS There   are   three   basic   filter   types:   diatomaceous   earth   (DE),   sand,   and   cartridge.   Even though   each   pool   may   have   its   own   unique   plumbing   design,   all   filter   systems   will   perform the   same   job.   Pool   water   is   drawn   through   a   skimmer   or   a   drain   and   pumped   through   a filter   which   removes   dirt,   algae   and   visible   contaminants   that   enter   the   pool.   You   must   operate   the   filter   system   at   least   eight hours   per   day   in   order   to   remove   wastes   effectively.   Remember,   by   filtering   properly   you   will   help   avoid   contaminant   build-up   and save   on   chemical   costs!   You   can   protect   your   filter   system   by   adding   the   correct   amount   of   sand   or   DE   and   cleaning   your   filter regularly   with   a   FILTER   CLEANER   to   remove   oils   and   other   organics   like   lint   or   hair   that   may   lodge   in   your   filter.   Occasionally   you may need to apply a CLARIFIER to help your filter trap minute particles that may be passing through the system. WATER BALANCE Your   pool   is   designed   to   hold   the   same   water   for   many   years.   You   filter   it   and   chemically   treat   it   over   and   over   again.   During this   period   of   time   the   water   can   drift   out   of   balance   and   cause   corrosion,   scaling   or   even   stains   to   appear.   You   can   easily   prevent these   problems   by   paying   attention   to   the   basics   of   water   balance.   A   good   quality   test   kit   will   measure   the   key   components   of water   balance--pH,   Total   Alkalinity,   and   Acid   or   Alkali   Demand.   Use   your   kit   often   until   you   become   familiar   with   your   pool   and supplement   your   tests   by   having   your   professional   pool   dealer   perform   detailed   tests   on   occasion   to   verify   your   readings   and   spot trends that could lead to potential problems. pH Measures   the   acidity   or   alkalinity   of   pool   water   on   a   scale   of   "0-   14".   Extreme   acid   is   "0"   and   extreme   alkali   is   "14".   The   proper pH   range   is   7.2-7.8.   pH   readings   greater   than   7.8   will   lead   to   cloudy   water   and   scaling   on   all   pool   surfaces,   inefficient   sanitizing,   and swimmer   discomfort.   pH   readings   less   than   7.2   will   lead   to   corrosion   of   metal   parts   such   as   heaters   and   ladders,   wrinkled   vinyl liners,   etched   plaster,   and   swimmer   discomfort.   You   can   easily   maintain   proper   pH   by   using   pH   DECREASER   or   pH   INCREASER   when needed according to label directions. TOTAL ALKALINITY Measures   the   level   of   certain   minerals   that   help   control   the   pH   of   your   pool   water.   The   proper   range   of   Total   Alkalinity   is between   80-150   ppm   (parts   per   million).   Low   Total   Alkalinity   allows   the   pH   to   fluctuate   or   "bounce"   in   either   direction   and   can   make it   difficult   for   you   to   keep   the   pH   stable.   For   that   reason   another   name   for   Total   Alkalinity   is   "pH   Stabilizer".   Raise   Total   Alkalinity by   using   TOTAL   ALKALINITY   "INCREASER"   according   to   label   directions.   High   Total   Alkalinity   locks   in   the   pH,   but   usually   at   pH   levels above   7.8.   This   condition   needs   to   be   corrected   with   pH   DECREASER   or   muriatic   acid.   Vinyl,   painted   and   fiberglass   pools   usually require    somewhat    higher    Total    Alkalinity    levels    than    plaster    pools    and    you    should    consult    your    professional    pool    store    or serviceman for more details. HARDNESS Measures   the   level   of   calcium   and   magnesium   minerals   present   in   your   pool   water.   These   minerals   exist   naturally   in   all   water but   the   levels   vary   greatly   from   one   part   of   the   country   to   another.   "Soft   water"   typically   contains   50   ppm   Hardness   or   less   while "hard   water"   may   contain   300   ppm   Hardness   or   more.   The   proper   range   for   plaster   pools   is   175-300   ppm   Hardness   and   for   vinyl, painted   or   fiberglass   pools   the   proper   range   is   125-250   ppm   Hardness.   Pool   water   low   in   Hardness   causes   etching   of   plaster   and corrosion   of   pool   surfaces.   Raise   Hardness   by   adding   CALCIUM   HARDNESS   INCREASER   according   to   label   directions.   Pool   water   high in   Hardness   causes   cloudiness   and   scaling   to   occur.   Control   these   symptoms   by   using   SCALE   OR   STAIN   REMOVER   according   to   label directions or drain a portion of the water and refill with water low in Hardness to dilute the mineral level. MINERAL CONTROL Is   an   important   concern   for   pool   owners   who   use   well   water   or   for   pools   that   contain   copper   plumbing   such   as   heaters.   Both conditions    can    yield    trace    levels    iron,    copper    or    even    manganese    that    can    cause    water    discoloration    and    staining.    Such discoloration   can   appear   green,   blue,   brown   or   even   black   in   color.   This   is   caused   by   the   reaction   between   your   sanitizer   and   the particular   trace   minerals   in   your   pool   water.   You   can   prevent   the   problem   by   having   your   pool   water   professionally   tested   for   these minerals   when   your   pool   is   being   filled   or   at   any   time   during   the   season.   If   staining   minerals   are   present   apply   SCALE   OR   STAIN REMOVER   as   soon   as   possible   according   to   label   directions.   Re-apply   the   treatment   if   necessary   and   consult   with   your   professional pool dealer or serviceman for more information. STABILIZER Refers   to   "chlorine   stabilizer",   the   final   part   of   pool   water   balance.   This   is   a   chemical   that   prevents   the   ultra-violet   rays   (UV)   of sunlight    from    prematurely    breaking    down    your    sanitizer    level    so    that    it    can    do    it's    job    sanitizing    the    pool    water.    CHLORINE STABILIZER   will   reduce   sanitizer   consumption   by   up   to   50%   and   need   only   be   added   once   for   the   entire   life   of   the   pool   water.   Apply CHLORINE STABILIZER according to label directions and do not backwash for at least 24 hours. SANITIZERS Now   that   your   pool   water   is   balanced   and   stabilized,   iris   time   to   sanitize   it   with   chlorine.   There   are   many   types   of   chlorine   and your   professional   pool   dealer   or   serviceman   will   explain   them   all   to   you.   The   most   economical   and   convenient   choice   is   STABILIZED CHLORINATING   TABLETS   or   STICKS.   This   type   of   chlorine   is   applied   weekly   and   is   not   affected   by   sunlight   like   HTH   or   liquid   bleach. You   can   dispense   TABLETS   or   STICKS   by   placing   them   in   a   chlorinator,   a   floating   feeder,   or   a   skimmer   basket.   Again,   your   dealer   or serviceman   will   guide   you   to   the   approach   that   is   best   for   your   pool.   The   EPA   (Environmental   Protection   Agency)   has   determined that   you   must   maintain   a   level   of   1.0-1.5   ppm   of   available   chlorine   at   all   times   to   continuously   kill   bacteria,   algae   and   other   micro- organisms   that   try   to   inhabit   your   pool.   By   using   slow   dissolving   TABLETS   or   STICKS   you   will   be   able   to   give   your   pool   24   hour protection.   During   pool   start-up   you   may   need   extra   doses   of   chlorine   in   order   to   satisfy   the   initial   demand   of   the   water.   This demand   could   include   contaminants   such   as   organics   and   debris   that   built   up   before   you   started   using   chlorine.   Use   your   test   kit often   to   check   your   chlorine   level   and   adjust   your   chlorinator   or   floater   as   needed   to   increase   or   decrease   the   flow.      A   few important   factors   affect   the   amount   of   TABLETS   or   STICKS   that   you   will   consume.   They   are:   Temperature,   Bathing   Load,   Rainfall   and pH.   The   warmer   the   pool   water,   the   greater   the   use   of   TABLETS   or   STICKS.   In   fact,   pool   water   at   80ø-85øF   will   require   twice   the chlorine   of   pool   water   at   60-65øF!   The   greater   the   bathing   load,   the   greater   the   use   of   TABLETS   or   STICKS.   Heavily   used   pools increase   the   load   of   contaminants   such   as   perspiration,   mucous   and   tanning   lotions,   all   of   which   consumes   chlorine.   The   greater the   rainfall,   the   greater   the   use   of   TABLETS   or   STICKS.   Rain   washes   airborne   contaminants   such   as   pollen   and   algae   spores   into   the pool   and   tends   to   lower   the   pH   of   the   water   by   contributing   "acid   rain",   a   chemical   reaction   between   rain   and   air   pollution.   Finally, low   pH   causes   chlorine   to   be   "overactive"   and   dissipate   too   quickly.   Proper   control   of   Total   Alkalinity   will   prevent   low   pH   and   save on   chemical   costs.      If   you   prefer   to   sanitize   your   pool   water   by   hand,   STABILIZED   CHLORINATING   GRANULES   is   the   proper   choice. These   granules   are   rapidly   and   completely   soluble   in   all   water   temperatures   and   provide   the   same   24   hour   protection   that   you   get from TABLETS or STICKS. SHOCK TREATMENTS Various   contaminants   such   as   swimmer   waste,   lotions   and   oils   can   resist   normal   chlorination   and   start   to   build   up   in   the   pool water.   This   build   up   usually   occurs   during   hot   weather   and   periods   of   heavy   bathing   when   your   filter   is   already   working   overtime. A   weekly   SHOCK   treatment,   when   applied   according   to   label   directions,   will   oxidize   or   burn-up   these   contaminants.   A   SHOCK quickly   raises   the   chlorine   level   to   overcome   the   contaminants   for   a   period   of   12-24   hours.   It   is   best   to   apply   SHOCK   in   early   evening so   that   it   can   work   overnight   and   be   burned   down   to   normal   levels   the   next   day.   Be   sure   to   continue   to   run   your   filter   during   this period of time. ALGAECIDES Algaecides   are   excellent   treatments   to   prevent   or   kill   algae   growth   when   used   with   chlorine.   As   a   preventative,   algaecides   act as   an   insurance   policy   in   your   pool,   killing   algae   spores   as   they   enter   the   water.   Algae   spores   are   constantly   entering   your   pool from   rain,   wind   and   dust   storms   and   they   multiply   rapidly   in   sunlight   and   warm   water.   Routine   chlorination   cannot,   at   times,   cope with   the   rapid   growth   of   an   algae   "bloom",   the   visible   outburst   of   algae.   These   algae   can   appear   green,   brown,   black,   mustard   or even   pink   in   color.   By   the   time   algae   has   bloomed   there   are   millions   of   algae   cells   in   every   gallon   of   water!   Your   professional   pool dealer   or   serviceman   has   a   variety   of   algaecides   for   all   kinds   of   algae   and   will   recommend   the   best   choice   for   either   prevention   or killing needs PRODUCT LIST STABILIZED CHLORINATING TABLETS (3" Size) * Slow dissolving, 89% available chlorine, 7 oz. wrapped tablets, For use in Floaters, chlorinators, or skimmers. STABILIZED CHLORINATING TABLETS (1" Size) * Slow dissolving, 89% available chlorine, 1/2 oz. tablets, For use in Floaters or chlorinators. STABILIZED CHLORINATING STICKS (2" Diameter) * Slow dissolving, 89% available chlorine, 8 oz. sticks, For use in Floaters, chlorinators, or skimmers. STABILIZED CHLORINATING GRANULES . Fast dissolving, 62% available chlorine granules, 100% soluble, For hand feeding. BROMINATING TABLETS (1" Size) . Slow dissolving, 61% available bromine, alternative to chlorine, For use in brominators. UNSTABILIZED CHLORINATING GRANULES . Fast dissolving, 65% available chlorine granules, contains calcium, For hand Feeding. STABILIZER * Slow dissolving, 100% active granules, to prevent sunlight From lowering available chlorine in pool water. pH INCREASER * Fast dissolving, 100% active, to raise pH. pH DECREASER . Fast dissolving, 95% active, to lower pH TOTAL ALKALINITY INCREASER . Fast dissolving, 100% active Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate, to raise and stabilize pH. CALCIUM HARDNESS INCREASER * Fast dissolving, 100% active, to raise and balance calcium level. SHOCK TREATMENT . Fast dissolving, 65% available chlorine granules, to oxidize contaminants that build up during year. ALGAECIDES . A variety of maximum strength algaecides, to prevent and kill a broad range oF algae. Check with your dealer or serviceman for details. SPECIALTY CHEMICALS . A variety of specialties For clarifying, stain and scale control, filter or surface cleaning. Check with your dealer or serviceman For details. TROUBLESHOOTING Sometimes   even   the   most   experienced   pool   managers   run   into   problems   that   require   special   treatments.   Here   are   a   number   of the most common problems and recommended actions. CLOUDY WATER Make   sure   the   filter   is   operating   properly   and   the   correct   amount   of   filter   media   has   been   used.   Adjust   the   pH,   if   necessary,   to 7.2-7.8   and   SHOCK   treat   the   water.   If   the   condition   does   not   improve   try   adding   a   CLARIFIER   or   filter   aid.   Continue   filtering   and maintain   the   required   level   of   chlorine.   If   your   pool   water   is   "old"   and   has   a   high   level   of   dissolved   solids   (calcium,   stabilizer, chlorides   and   other   salts)   you   may   need   to   drain   a   portion   of   the   water   and   refill   with   fresh   water.   Your   dealer   or   serviceman   can test this for you and advise the correct action. ALGAE There   are   many   types   of   algae   that   can   infect   pool   water.   The   most   common   types,   floating   or   clinging   green   algae,   respond quickly   to   a   SHOCK   treatment   and   dose   of   maximum   strength   ALGAECIDE.   Be   sure   to   adjust   the   pH,   if   necessary,   to   7.2-7.8   before shocking   and   brush   all   pool   surfaces   to   expose   algae   hiding   in   cracks   or   wrinkles.   Apply   the   algaecide   the   next   day.   Pink   algae   and mustard   algae   require   extra   care   because   they   both   tend   to   re-infect   pool   water   very   easily.   Treat   pink   algae   in   the   same   manner   as already   outlined   but,   in   addition,   sanitize   all   pool   parts   that   come   in   contact   with   the   water,   such   as   the   vacuum   hose   and   head,   by immersing   them   in   the   pool   during   the   shock   treatment.   Treat   mustard   algae   with   a   special   algaecide   designed   to   combat   this strain.   Clinging   black   algae   that   tends   to   appear   as   dots   or   nodules   can   be   treated   by   applying   a   slow   dissolving   granular   algaecide directly   on   the   algae   and   by   brushing   the   algae   vigorously   to   expose   it's   roots.   In   all   cases   apply   the   ALGAECIDE   directly   into   the pool as close to the algae as possible. COLORED WATER Reddish   or   brownish   colored   water   is   usually   caused   by   oxidized   iron   or   manganese.   Treat   the   pool   water   with   STAIN   &   SCALE REMOVER   to   coat   the   minerals   and   prevent   the   oxidation   process.   Greenish   or   bluish   colored   water   is   usually   caused   by   oxidized copper.   Treat   the   condition   as   above   and   consult   with   your   dealer   or   serviceman   for   more   details.   Be   sure   not   to   confuse   green, slimy water that indicates an algae infection with the greenish cast associated with copper. STAINS AND SCALE Stains   can   develop   when   colored   water   is   left   unattended   or   when   metals   such   as   coins   are   accidentally   left   in   the   pool.   Scale   is a   crusty   build   up   on   pool   floors   and   walls   caused   by   excessive   calcium   levels   and   high   pH.   Usually   both   conditions   must   occur   for scale   to   form.   Both   stains   and   scale   can   be   controlled   by   lowering   the   pH,   if   necessary,   and   by   using   STAIN   AND   SCALE   REMOVER according to label directions. Severe   conditions,   especially   in   plastered   pools,   may   require   an   "acid   wash",   a   draining   and   cleaning   performed   by   your   dealer   or serviceman. CHLORINE: TOO HIGH OR TOO LOW Inability   to   hold   a   chlorine   reading   usually   indicates   lack   of   STABILIZER   in   the   water.   Have   your   water   tested   for   STABILIZER   and add   if   necessary.   Also   be   sure   to   check   your   floater   or   chlorinator   to   insure   a   supply   of   chlorine.   Low   readings   could   signal   an excessive   chlorine   demand   that   is   not   being   met.   In   this   case,   a   SHOCK   treatment   would   be   appropriate.   Finally,   your   testing chemicals   (reagents)   may   be   old   and   need   to   be   replenished.   Check   with   your   dealer   or   serviceman   for   accurate   water   testing.   A high   chlorine   reading   that   won't   dissipate   gradually   may   indicate   too   much   chlorine   is   being   added   to   the   water.   Check   your   floater or   chlorinator   and   make   the   necessary   adjustment.   On   occasion   chloramines   (chlorine   reacted   with   swimmer   waste)   can   develop and    cause    the    chlorine    reading    to    remain    high.    In    this    case,    a    SHOCK    treatment    corrects    the    condition    by    breaking    up    the chloramines. WINTER CARE If you live in a climate that requires winterization of your pool you should follow these simple steps. 1. Have your water tested professionally and add any necessary balancers at this time. 2. Vacuum the pool thoroughly and clean the filter. 3. If you have minerals, high calcium level, or a new plaster pool add STAIN AND SCALE CONTROL directly to the water. 4. While the pool is still circulating, SHOCK it according to label direction and be sure to distribute the SHOCK evenly. 5. Prevent winter algae growth by adding ALGAECIDE the followingday. 6. Lower the water level if desired, plug all lines and drain water from the equipment to prevent freeze damage. 7. Follow all equipment makers recommendations for winter care. 8. Add pool grade anti-freeze to the lines to prevent freezing. 9. Cover the pool with either a mesh or solid cover and fasten itsecurely. Consult with your dealer or serviceman for the cover that is best foryour pool and for more details about winter care. SAFETY TIPS Your pool will bring years of safe and enjoyable swimming if you follow these simple rules. 1. No running, pushing, or foolish play in or near the pool. 2. No diving in shallow or unmarked pools. 3. Children must be supervised at all times. 4. Safety fencing should be added (check local building codes). 5. Keep a first aid kit and manual, a life ring, and a pole on site at all times. Browser Fixed Safe handling of chemicals should also be the rule. 1. Chlorine products emit powerful chlorine gas and should never be opened indoors and when opened, avoid breathing fumes. 2. Label directions for use must be followed at all times. 3. Do not mix chemicals. A violent reaction can occur. 4. Never add water to chemicals. 5. Read all warning statements on product labels. 6. Do not take advise from others or experiment on your own. 7. Store all chemicals in a cool, dry place and keep sealed. 8. Most important of all, KEEP CHEMICALS AWAY FROM CHILDREN. ALGAECIDES: MANY CURES Algae   are   constantly   infecting   water   through   airborne   contact   which   is   accelerated   by   rain   and   wind.   If   algae   spores   are      killed off as they enter the water by using repeated algaestatic or maintenance doses of algaecides, the incidents of alga bloom are effectively eliminated. This is an "insurance policy" approach compared to the cost of treating alga bloom. If   algae   does   bloom   (become   visible),   then   the   best   approach   is   to   adjust   the   pH=   7.2-7.8,   shock   treat   the   water   with   7-10   ppm      of available chlorine, brush all surfaces vigorously, and follow with a killing dose ( 5x maintenance dose) of algaecide. Continue to filter and backwash, if necessary, during the entire episode. According   to   the   United   States   EPA   (Environmental   Protection   Agency)   all   approved   algaecides   prevent   and   kill   most   strains   of algae. There is no rule or clear-cut order to determine which algaecide to use, so choosing algaecides is similar to choosing medicines. Start with your favored choice and proceed from there. If algae persists, try another choice. Here are the algaecide choices and their characteristics: QUAT   TYPE   :   This   is   the   nickname   for   Quaternary   ammonium   chloride.   It   is   economical,   long-lasting,   non-staining   (non-metallic), excellent   wetting   properties   (penetrates   microscopic   cracks).   Will   foam   if   overdosed.   Best   used   for   floating   green,   clinging   green and   pink   algae.   POLYMER   TYPE      This   is   the   nickname   for   an   organic   polymer.   It   is   fairly   expensive,   very   long   lasting,   non-staining, and   non-foaming.   Manufacturer   data   suggests   it   is   more   stable   in   the   presence   of   high   chlorine   than   "quats."   Best   used   for   black (Dark green complex) and pink algae. COPPER   TYPE   This   is   a   chelated   (controlled)   copper   solution.   It   is   very   economical,   very   long   lasting,   and   non   foaming.   Can   cause blue   staining   or   "green"   hair.   Best   used   for   floating   green   and   mustard   algae.   SILVER   TYPE   .   This   is   a   silver   colloid   (controlled) solution.   It   is   very   expensive,   short   lived   (curative   use   only),   and   non   foaming.   Can   cause   brown   staining   if   mis-handled.   Best   used for black and mustard algae. All other approved algaecides are dilutions or blends of these four types. ACID & BASE DEMAND CALCULATIONS Don't   overlook   the   importance   of   performing   Base   Demand   Tests   if   your   pH   is   6.8   or   lower   and   Acid   Demand   Tests   if   your   pH   is 8.2 or higher. Many   water   samples   are   being   reported   with   pH--   6.8   when,   in   fact,   the   true   pH   might   be   5.0-6.5!   Taking   time   to   perform   the Base Demand Test will take the guess work out of adjusting the pH. Look at the difference: pH Reading     Amount of Product Needed to Attain pH=7.5 6.8         1.5 lbs. Sodium Carbonate per 10,000 gallons 6.5         4.5 lbs. Sodium Carbonate per 10,000 gallons 6.0        10-12 lbs. Sodium Carbonate per 10,000 gallons If a pool owner uses 1.5 lbs. of Sodium Carbonate when 5 or 10 lbs. is actually required, the pH reading will still appear as 6.8. Rule of thumb: For each drop of Base Demand, use one-third (1/3) lb. of Sodium Carbonate per 10,000 gallons. The   calculation   for   Acid   Demand   reveals   a   similar   pattern   with   an   extra   complication   related   to   the   level   of   Total   Alkalinity. This is especially true in hard water areas and with curing plastered pools. An extra amount of acid may be needed to lower the both Total Alkalinity and pH. pH Reading       Amount of Dry Acid Needed to Attain pH= 7.5 8.2           1.5 lbs. Dry Acid per 10,000 gallons 8.5           4-5 lbs. Dry Acid per 10,000 gallons 9.0        10-12 lbs. Dry Acid per 10,000 gallons For those who prefer Muriatic Acid, the conversion factor from Dry Acid to Muriatic Acid (Hydrochloric Acid) is: 10 lbs. of Dry Acid -- One (1) Gallon of Muriatic Acid Because   of   the   connection   between   high   pH   and   high   Total   Alkalinity   the   following   information   should   be   considered.   The      most common   technique   to   reduce   Total   Alkalinity   is   to   pour   Muriatic   Acid   in   a   series   of   "pockets"   in   the   deep   end   of   a   pool,   keeping away   from   the   walls   and   floor,   if   possible.   Use   of   Muriatic   Acid   seems   to   reduce   Total   Alkalinity   with   less   impact   on   pH   than   use   of Dry Acid. Rule of thumb: 1 Gallon of Muriatic Acid reduces 60 ppm of Total Alkalinity in 10,000 gallons. ALGAE: SOME STUBBORN FACTS Algae,   algae,   algae...   green,   black,   mustard,   and   pink.   Why   do   you   use   algaecides?   When   do   you   dose?   Which   one?   How   much? These   questions   are   asked   over   and   over   again.   It   seems   that   everyone   has   their   own   opinions   about   algae   control   and   here   are some of the most widely held beliefs: Algaecides   are   not   necessary   because   chlorine   kills   all.   This   may   be   true   in   theory,   but   the   chlorine   level   must   be   kept   high   at all   times   (3   ppm   or   higher)   and   not   permitted   to   slip.   This   can   be   expensive,   irritating   to   swimmers,   will   lead   to   bleached   swimwear and   vinyl   liners,   and   is   difficult   to   maintain.   Even   in   high   chlorine,   some   algae   "habitate"   or   become   accustomed   to   a   steady   level. In   tropical   areas,   for   example,   black   algae   sets   "roots"   and   seals   itself   with   a   tar-like   coating   that   is   unaffected   by   high   levels   of chlorine. Mustard algae is another algae that seems to thrive in chlorinated water. Algaecides   are   killers   and   Algaestats   are   preventatives.   This   may   be   true   by   definition   but   one   product   does   both   jobs.   The   EPA does   not   recognize   the   difference   between   killing   visible   algae   (Algaecide)   and   killing   invisible   algae   (Algaestat).   Invisible   algae sounds like a contradiction but, in fact, thousands of algae are growing before they become visible in an algae bloom. Algae   doesn't   grow   in   low   pH   water.   Not   true.   The   most   common   types   of   algae   such   as   "planktonic   blue-greens"   prefer   pH=7.4- 9.0.   but   many   types   live   in   pH--   5.0-7.0.   During   periods   of   hot   weather   and   intense   sunlight,   photosynthesis   is   at   its   peak.   As   algae grow,   carbon   dioxide   (food   for   algae)   is   withdrawn   from   the   water   and   the   pH   drifts   upward.   It   is   most   common   to   see   a   green   pool with a pH-- 8.0. Algae   doesn't   grow   in   cold   water.   Temperatures   have   to   drop   to   near   freezing   before   algae   move   into   a   dormant   state.   Studies in the Arctic Circle indicate that as long as light is present algae will grow. Algae   can   be   filtered   out   of   water.   This   is   true   for   "colonies"   of   algae   that   are   visible   in   the   water,   but   is   not   true   for   single   ceil algae,   for   example,   that   exist   as   small   as   0.5   micron.   Diatomaceous   earth   (DE)   filters   particles   down   to   1-3   microns,   sand   filters particles down to 15-20 microns, cartridge filters particles down to about 20 microns. Generally, if you can see it, you can filter it. CHELATORS & SEQUESTRANTS The   word   CHELATE   is   derived   from   the   Greek   word   for   "claw".   In   pool   and   spa   chemistry   chelate   means   a   chemical   treatment   to control   or   "coat"   soluble   metal   ions   and   prevent   their   oxidation   into   unwanted   colored   precipitates.   A   chelator   attaches   to   a   metal ion like copper or iron and wraps around it like a claw. There   are   many   types   of   chelators   available   in   the   market.   Among   the   most   widely   used   is   a   group   of   organic   acids   called "amino   polycarboxylic   acids".   These   chemicals   are   usually   formulated   into   liquids   that   quickly   attach   to   copper   or   iron   ions   and deactivate   them.   Please   note   that   chelators   will   not   react   with   metals   such   as   finely   divided   iron   shavings   and   they   react   very slowly with metals that are already oxidized or precipitated. Sequestrants   differ   from   chelators   in   the   way   they   "coat"   or   react   with   mineral   ions.   Sequestrants   generally   have   a   few   active sites on each molecule allowing it to control two or more metal ions at a time. Because of this, sequestrants are often more powerful as stain removers and are often sold with specific stain removal directions. FACTS ABOUT CHELATORS & SEQUESTRANTS Many   chelators   and   sequestrants   have   metal   ION   PREFERENCES   called   "displacements".   This   means   that   certain   metal   ions   will be   coated   before   others.   The   usual   preference   is   iron,   then   copper,   then   manganese,   then   calcium,   then   magnesium.   There   are chelators that favor calcium first. The   EFFECTIVENESS   of   chelators   and   sequestrants   to   coat   undesired   metal   ions   depends   on   the   concentration   of   the   ions   to   be chelated. For example, it is easier to control 1 ppm of copper and 1 ppm of iron in soft water (50 ppm of calcium) than in   hard   water   (350   ppm   of   calcium).   The   presence   of   350   ppm   of   calcium   in   water,   for   example,   will   occupy   a   large   portion   of   the chelator   intended   to   control   the   copper   and   iron.   With   this   in   mind   it   is   advisable   to   chelate   or   sequester   undesired   metal   ions before adding calcium to the water. The   AMOUNT   of   chelator   or   sequestrant   needed   depends   on   the   type   of   metal   ions   present.   For   example,   copper,   iron,   and manganese   all   require   about   the   same   amount   of   chelator   whereas   calcium   requires   50%   more   chelator.   Reactions   to   control   metal ions occur within seconds in most cases. Chelators   and   sequestrants   are   PH   AND   OXIDIZER   sensitive.   Very   low   pH,   occurring   in   a   "pocket"   of   water   where   acid   has   been added,   can   cause   loss   of   chelation.   Very   high   pH,   again   a   "pocket"   effect,   can   also   cause   chelation   failure   and   precipitation   of copper   or   iron.   Because   most   chelators   and   sequestrants   are   organic   molecules,   they   are   subject   to   attack   by   high   levels   of oxidizers   and   "wear   off'   over   time.   This   is   the   reason   that   most   product   labels   state   that   continued   additions   may   be   necessary   to control    metals.    With    this    in    mind,    it    is    obvious    that    shock    treatments    should    not    be    performed    directly    after    chelators    or sequestrants have been added. TEMPERATURE    and    TDS    (Total    Dissolved    Solids)    have    slight    effects    on    chelation.    According    to    manufacturer    studies,    high temperature and high TDS increase the amount of chelator or sequestrant needed. METAL CONTROL TECHNIQUES Soluble metal ions such as copper or iron can exist in water in three different forms. They are: 1) Unreacted ions. Colorless but ready to react in some manner such as oxidation. 2) Ions already reacted but not yet precipitated. Colored water but not staining. 3) Ions already reacted and precipitated. Clear water but stained surfaces. There are four different techniques used to control metals depending on their state as shown above. The control techniques are: Chemical   chelators or sequestrants pH control. The use of acids or alkalis Chemical   reduction.   The   use   of   strong   anti-oxidizers   Chlorination   or   oxidationChelators   and   sequestrants   chemically   coat   ions   in any of the three states. Effectiveness varies based on pH, sanitizer level, calcium level, depth of stain and amount of stain. An   acid   wash   is   an   extreme   example   of   pH   control.   Strong   acid   breaks   the   bonds   of   reacted   ions   and   releases   the   ions   to   the unreacted   state.   Strong   alkali   such   as   sodium   carbonate   can   bond   with   unreacted   ions   to   form   cloudy   precipitates   which   can   be easily filtered or flocked and vacuumed to waste. Chemical   reduction   is   the   opposite   of   oxidation.   It   can   be   used   effectively   to   reverse   reacted   iron   either   in   the   colored   or precipitated states. Reduction brings the iron back to the unreacted state. Under   certain   conditions   chlorination   or   other   forms   of   oxidation   such   as   granular   oxygen   compounds   or   ozonation,   are   used   to produce a cloudy precipitate that is easily filtered or flocked and vacuumed to waste. Metal Control Products Product Type: Chelator  Sequestrant  Reduction  Oxidation  Chlorination  Trade Name Example Chonchelate, Metal Out  Sequest, Stain Off, Spa Demineralizer  Conquest  Demineralizer  Shock II, Sho2X  Hit Hard, More Chlor CYANURIC ACID TESTING The   Cyanuric   Acid   (Stabilizer)   test   is   perhaps   the   most   inconsistent   water   test   performed.   Some   of   the   problems   of   reporting and reproducing accurate Cyanuric Acid readings are: 1)   Temperature   of   the   sample.   Try   to   keep   and   test   the   water   sample   at   room         temperature.   The   colder   the   water,   the   lower   the test resuIt. 2)   Waiting   time   before   reading.   Be   consistent   at   the   recommended   30   seconds   before   …. reading.   The   shorter   the   time   interval,   the lower the test result. 3)   Viewing   tube   cloudiness.   Due   to   a   reaction   with   the   Cyanuric   reagent,   Viewing   ,,,, Tubes   become   cloudy   over   a   period   of   a   few months. Be sure to rinse the Viewing Tube carefully after each use. Cloudy tubes are hard to read. 4)   Reading   higher   levels   of   Cyanuric   Acid.   The   markings   of   60,   80,   and   100   ppm   level   …. on   …. the   Viewing   Tube   are   increasingly   close together. Only a fraction of an inch …. separates …. the 60 ppm mark from the 100 ppm mark. Rather than guess in this …. higher   range,   redo   the   test   by   diluting   the   water   sample   in   half   with   tap   water   to   …. put   …. the   test   result   in   a   more   readable range.   Then   double   your   reading   to   more   …. accurately   report   the   Cyanuric   Acid   level.   Always   dilute   the   water   sample   and   redo …. the test when over 100 ppm. An   interesting   problem   with   Cyanuric   Acid   results   is   that   high   levels   of   Cyanuric   Acid   notably   affects   Total   Alkalinity.   When measuring Total Alkalinity follow this formula: Total Alkalinity - (Cyanuric Acid level x .30) = True Total Alkalinity THE FUNGUS (Dark Stains On Liners) During   the   past   four   years   a   small,   but   growing   number   of   above   ground   and   in   ground   vinyl   liner   pools   have   developed   dark colored   stains   that   do   not   respond   to   normal   chemical   treatments   such   as   shock   treatments   or   algaecides.   Nor   can   these   stains   be brushed   off   or   scraped   off.   They   appear   to   be   caused   by   unusual   fungus   attacks.   In   many   cases   these   stains   can   be   bleached   out   for a time ranging from one week up to two years (depending on the severity of the stain) using the following procedure: 1) Adjust the pH, if necessary, to 7.2-7.8 2) Adjust the Total Alkalinity, if necessary to 100-150 ppm 3) Turn off the filtration system and allow the water to sit. 4)   Prior   to   this   step   it   is   very   important   to               note   that   Trichloro   Granules   should   not   contact   the   vinyl   liner   for   more   than   fifteen (15)   minutes   in   order   to   prevent   the   …. vinyl   liner   from   bleaching!   Pour   2   lbs.   of   Nuclo   QUICK   KILL   or   Ortex   TRICHLORO   GRANULAR   or equivalent directly on the affected areas. 5) Spread the granules evenly over the stains and allow direct contact for 7-10 minutes.                                          Then   push   the   granular   pile   to   the   next   affected   area   with   a   wide   pool   brush.   For   stains   in   sloped   areas,   pour   granules   into   a   deep- pocket   leaf   net   and   …. allow   the   net   to   lie   on   the   affected   area   for   7-10   minutes.   If   granules   fail   through   …. the   mesh   of   the   leaf   net, an   alternative   approach   is   to   pour   about   1/2   lb.   of   …. granules   into   the   toe   of   nylon   panty   hose.   Nylon   hose   has   a   much   finer   mesh …. construction.   In   any   event,   the   granules   must   not   contact   the   vinyl   liner   for   more   …. than   fifteen   (15)   minutes   in   order   to   prevent the   vinyl   liner   from   bleaching.   Please   test   this   procedure   on   a   small   area   to   determine   your   vinyl   liner's   reactivity.   When   the   stain removal procedure is complete, start the filtration system and vacuum the remaining granules in the filter. NITRIFICATION & CHLORINE DEMAND How green is a green pool? When is a normal shock treatment the correct dose compared to a treatment 3x normal? Or 5x? These   questions   test   the   imagination   of   anyone   who   is   asked   to   describe   a   "green   pool."   Maybe   one   should   be   asked,   "Can   you see the shallow end bottom, the hopper, or even the deep end bottom?" WHAT IS NITRIFICATION? If   green   is   really   green,   it's   a   good   bet   that   nitrification   has   taken   place.   Nitrification   is   a   micro   biological   process   in   which ammonia   (NH3)is   converted   by   oxidation   into   nitrite   (N02)   and   nitrate   (N03).   This   process   is   carried   out   by   two   bacteria   known   as Nitrosomonas   .   But   first,   ammonia   must   be   formed.   The   sources   of   ammonia   are   quite   plentiful:   inorganic   fertilizers,   plant   protein decay   (leaves   etc.)   and   animal   protein   decay   (bugs   etc.)   Specialized   bacteria   decompose   the   proteins   into   ammonia   in   part   of   an ongoing   cycle   called   the   NITROGEN   CYCLE.   (see   Nitrogen   Cycle   Chart).   Nitrosomonas,   in   turn,   get   their   energy   or   "food"   from   the newly   created   ammonia   and   carbon   dioxide,   both   present   in   the   water.   Once   nitrification   begins,   an   accelerating   cycle   develops. The   nitrates,   once   formed,   are   great   algae   nutrients!   And   as   nitrates   accumulate,   algae   bloom   and   the   water   turns   greener   and greener.   As   the   Nitrogen   Cycle   progresses,   more   and   more   plant   life   becomes   available   for   further   bacterial   decomposition   into more and more ammonia. WHAT ARE THE EFFECTS? Nitrification   leads   to   water   conditions   that   range   from   slight   odor   to   major   algae   bloom.   These   conditions   have   been   observed in   both   swimming   pools   and   in   municipal   waste   water   treatment   systems.   The   color   can   range   from   a   light   green   tint   to   an   emerald or dark green, or even a black. Water clarity can range from a hazy deep end to almost solid color at a depth of a few inches. WHAT CONDITIONS FAVOR NITRIFICATION? The   primary   influence   is   the   level   of   ammonia   present.   And   this   level,   in   turn,   depends   on   the   level   of   decomposing   plant   and animal   life,   and   certain   fertilizers.   A   second   factor   is   pH,   especially   in   the   range   of   pH=   7.5-8.5.   A   third   factor   is   water   temperature   in the   range   of70-85F.   A   fourth   factor   is   periods   of   extended   darkness   (covered   pools)   followed   by   exposure   to   sunlight   (promotes algae   growth).   Clearly   the   "worst   case   scenario"   is   a   pool   that   is   carelessly   winterized   (not   cleaned   or   vacuumed,   little   or   no sanitizer   added),poorly   covered   (rips,   pin   holes,   too   small   etc.),   and   left   covered   late   into   the   spring   (long   incubation   and   warming water). WHAT CAN BE DONE? Testing   for   Nitrification   is   too   complicated   for   a   single   test   such   as   a   nitrate   test   (being   used   by   some   pool   dealers   to   identify the   problem).   A   nitrate   test   will   only   test   one   part   of   the   cycle.   Research   *   indicates,   for   example,   that   Nitrosomonas   bacteria secrete   organic   compounds   that   actually   stimulate   the   growth   of   other   types   of   bacteria.   A   test   for   these   bacteria   would   be   needed too.   Data   from   the   Metropolitan   Water   District   of   So.   Cal.   shows   5-10   ppm   of   chlorine   effective   in   controlling   mild   nitrification. Severe cases can require 25-50 ppm of chlorine (5x shock treatment) and repeated treatments in some cases.
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Take    care    of    your    pool    and    it    will provide    you    with    enjoyable    swimming year   after   year.   If   you   follow   the   basics of      proper      chemical      treatment      and filtration,pool    care    will    be    simple    and easy to follow. This   section   will   guide   you   through   the steps    you    should    take    from    pool    start- up,to        in-season        care,        to        winter protection.   It   even   covers   important   tips on   safetyaround   your   pool   and   contains a handy trouble-shooting guide. SIZING YOUR POOL You   must   know   the   amount   of   water that    your    pool    holds    in    order    to    know how    much    chemical    to    use.    Here    is    a simple    chart    to    figure    out    your    pool volume.     All     measurements     should     be taken in feet. ROUND:     Diameter          x               Diameter          x       Average Depth x 5.9 = Gallons RECTANGLE:   Length      x         Width      x         Average Depth x 7.5 = Gallons OVAL:   Long   Dia.      x      Short   Dia.      x      Average Depth  x  5.9 Gallons For    all    other    pools    ask    your    builder, retailer, or serviceman for help. FILTER SYSTEMS There    are    three    basic    filter    types: diatomaceous     earth     (DE),     sand,     and cartridge.    Even    though    each    pool    may have   its   own   unique   plumbing   design,   all filter   systems   will   perform   the   same   job. Pool   water   is   drawn   through   a   skimmer or   a   drain   and   pumped   through   a   filter which    removes    dirt,    algae    and    visible contaminants    that    enter    the    pool.    You must   operate   the   filter   system   at   least eight   hours   per   day   in   order   to   remove wastes       effectively.       Remember,       by filtering    properly    you    will    help    avoid contaminant      build-up      and      save      on chemical    costs!    You    can    protect    your filter     system     by     adding     the     correct amount   of   sand   or   DE   and   cleaning   your filter   regularly   with   a   FILTER   CLEANER   to remove   oils   and   other   organics   like   lint or    hair    that    may    lodge    in    your    filter. Occasionally    you    may    need    to    apply    a CLARIFIER   to   help   your   filter   trap   minute particles    that    may    be    passing    through the system. WATER BALANCE Your    pool    is    designed    to    hold    the same   water   for   many   years.   You   filter   it and    chemically    treat    it    over    and    over again.    During    this    period    of    time    the water   can   drift   out   of   balance   and   cause corrosion,     scaling     or     even     stains     to appear.    You    can    easily    prevent    these problems     by     paying     attention     to     the basics   of   water   balance.   A   good   quality test        kit        will        measure        the        key components   of   water   balance--pH,   Total Alkalinity,    and    Acid    or    Alkali    Demand. Use    your    kit    often    until    you    become familiar   with   your   pool   and   supplement your    tests    by    having    your    professional pool    dealer    perform    detailed    tests    on occasion   to   verify   your   readings   and   spot trends     that     could     lead     to     potential problems. pH Measures   the   acidity   or   alkalinity   of pool   water   on   a   scale   of   "0-   14".   Extreme acid   is   "0"   and   extreme   alkali   is   "14".   The proper    pH    range    is    7.2-7.8.    pH    readings greater   than   7.8   will   lead   to   cloudy   water and      scaling      on      all      pool      surfaces, inefficient      sanitizing,      and      swimmer discomfort.   pH   readings   less   than   7.2   will lead   to   corrosion   of   metal   parts   such   as heaters     and     ladders,     wrinkled     vinyl liners,     etched     plaster,     and     swimmer discomfort.     You     can     easily     maintain proper   pH   by   using   pH   DECREASER   or   pH INCREASER    when    needed    according    to label directions. TOTAL ALKALINITY Measures       the       level       of       certain minerals   that   help   control   the   pH   of   your pool    water.    The    proper    range    of    Total Alkalinity   is   between   80-150   ppm   (parts per   million).   Low   Total   Alkalinity   allows the   pH   to   fluctuate   or   "bounce"   in   either direction    and    can    make    it    difficult    for you    to    keep    the    pH    stable.    For    that reason   another   name   for   Total   Alkalinity is   "pH   Stabilizer".   Raise   Total   Alkalinity by   using   TOTAL   ALKALINITY   "INCREASER" according   to   label   directions.   High   Total Alkalinity   locks   in   the   pH,   but   usually   at pH   levels   above   7.8.   This   condition   needs to    be    corrected    with    pH    DECREASER    or muriatic       acid.       Vinyl,       painted       and fiberglass         pools         usually         require somewhat   higher   Total   Alkalinity   levels than     plaster     pools     and     you     should consult    your    professional    pool    store    or serviceman for more details. HARDNESS Measures    the    level    of    calcium    and magnesium     minerals     present     in     your pool       water.       These       minerals       exist naturally   in   all   water   but   the   levels   vary greatly   from   one   part   of   the   country   to another.   "Soft   water"   typically   contains 50    ppm    Hardness    or    less    while    "hard water"    may    contain    300    ppm    Hardness or    more.    The    proper    range    for    plaster pools    is    175-300    ppm    Hardness    and    for vinyl,    painted    or    fiberglass    pools    the proper    range    is    125-250    ppm    Hardness. Pool     water     low     in     Hardness     causes etching   of   plaster   and   corrosion   of   pool surfaces.      Raise      Hardness      by      adding CALCIUM            HARDNESS            INCREASER according   to   label   directions.   Pool   water high   in   Hardness   causes   cloudiness   and scaling   to   occur.   Control   these   symptoms by     using     SCALE     OR     STAIN     REMOVER according   to   label   directions   or   drain   a portion     of     the     water     and     refill     with water     low     in     Hardness     to     dilute     the mineral level. MINERAL CONTROL Is    an    important    concern    for    pool owners   who   use   well   water   or   for   pools that    contain    copper    plumbing    such    as heaters.   Both   conditions   can   yield   trace levels    iron,    copper    or    even    manganese that   can   cause   water   discoloration   and staining.    Such    discoloration    can    appear green,   blue,   brown   or   even   black   in   color. This   is   caused   by   the   reaction   between your    sanitizer    and    the    particular    trace minerals    in    your    pool    water.    You    can prevent   the   problem   by   having   your   pool water     professionally     tested     for     these minerals   when   your   pool   is   being   filled or    at    any    time    during    the    season.    If staining     minerals     are     present     apply SCALE    OR    STAIN    REMOVER    as    soon    as possible   according   to   label   directions.   Re- apply    the    treatment    if    necessary    and consult     with     your     professional     pool dealer        or        serviceman        for        more information. STABILIZER Refers    to    "chlorine    stabilizer",    the final   part   of   pool   water   balance.   This   is   a chemical    that    prevents    the    ultra-violet rays    (UV)    of    sunlight    from    prematurely breaking    down    your    sanitizer    level    so that   it   can   do   it's   job   sanitizing   the   pool water.   CHLORINE   STABILIZER   will   reduce sanitizer   consumption   by   up   to   50%   and need   only   be   added   once   for   the   entire life   of   the   pool   water.   Apply   CHLORINE STABILIZER   according   to   label   directions and    do    not    backwash    for    at    least    24 hours. SANITIZERS Now      that      your      pool      water      is balanced     and     stabilized,     iris     time     to sanitize   it   with   chlorine.   There   are   many types   of   chlorine   and   your   professional pool    dealer    or    serviceman    will    explain them    all    to    you.    The    most    economical and     convenient     choice     is     STABILIZED CHLORINATING    TABLETS    or    STICKS.    This type   of   chlorine   is   applied   weekly   and   is not    affected    by    sunlight    like    HTH    or liquid   bleach.   You   can   dispense   TABLETS or      STICKS      by      placing      them      in      a chlorinator,     a     floating     feeder,     or     a skimmer    basket.    Again,    your    dealer    or serviceman      will      guide      you      to      the approach   that   is   best   for   your   pool.   The EPA    (Environmental    Protection    Agency) has   determined   that   you   must   maintain a     level     of     1.0-1.5     ppm     of     available chlorine   at   all   times   to   continuously   kill bacteria,       algae       and       other       micro- organisms   that   try   to   inhabit   your   pool. By     using     slow     dissolving     TABLETS     or STICKS   you   will   be   able   to   give   your   pool 24   hour   protection.   During   pool   start-up you   may   need   extra   doses   of   chlorine   in order   to   satisfy   the   initial   demand   of   the water.      This      demand      could      include contaminants      such      as      organics      and debris   that   built   up   before   you   started using   chlorine.   Use   your   test   kit   often   to check   your   chlorine   level   and   adjust   your chlorinator     or     floater     as     needed     to increase    or    decrease    the    flow.        A    few important   factors   affect   the   amount   of TABLETS   or   STICKS   that   you   will   consume. They    are:    Temperature,    Bathing    Load, Rainfall    and    pH.    The    warmer    the    pool water,   the   greater   the   use   of   TABLETS   or STICKS.    In    fact,    pool    water    at    80ø-85øF will    require    twice    the    chlorine    of    pool water      at      60-65øF!      The      greater      the bathing    load,    the    greater    the    use    of TABLETS    or    STICKS.    Heavily    used    pools increase   the   load   of   contaminants   such as     perspiration,     mucous     and     tanning lotions,   all   of   which   consumes   chlorine. The   greater   the   rainfall,   the   greater   the use    of    TABLETS    or    STICKS.    Rain    washes airborne    contaminants    such    as    pollen and   algae   spores   into   the   pool   and   tends to     lower     the     pH     of     the     water     by contributing     "acid     rain",     a     chemical reaction   between   rain   and   air   pollution. Finally,    low    pH    causes    chlorine    to    be "overactive"    and    dissipate    too    quickly. Proper    control    of    Total    Alkalinity    will prevent    low    pH    and    save    on    chemical costs.      If   you   prefer   to   sanitize   your   pool water            by            hand,            STABILIZED CHLORINATING   GRANULES   is   the   proper choice.    These    granules    are    rapidly    and completely        soluble        in        all        water temperatures    and    provide    the    same    24 hour     protection     that     you     get     from TABLETS or STICKS. SHOCK TREATMENTS Various       contaminants       such       as swimmer    waste,    lotions    and    oils    can resist    normal    chlorination    and    start    to build   up   in   the   pool   water.   This   build   up usually    occurs    during    hot    weather    and periods     of     heavy     bathing     when     your filter     is     already     working     overtime.     A weekly   SHOCK   treatment,   when   applied according   to   label   directions,   will   oxidize or   burn-up   these   contaminants.   A   SHOCK quickly     raises     the     chlorine     level     to overcome   the   contaminants   for   a   period of   12-24   hours.   It   is   best   to   apply   SHOCK in    early    evening    so    that    it    can    work overnight   and   be   burned   down   to   normal levels   the   next   day.   Be   sure   to   continue to    run    your    filter    during    this    period    of time. ALGAECIDES Algaecides   are   excellent   treatments to    prevent    or    kill    algae    growth    when used    with    chlorine.    As    a    preventative, algaecides   act   as   an   insurance   policy   in your    pool,    killing    algae    spores    as    they enter      the      water.      Algae      spores      are constantly   entering   your   pool   from   rain, wind   and   dust   storms   and   they   multiply rapidly     in     sunlight     and     warm     water. Routine    chlorination    cannot,    at    times, cope   with   the   rapid   growth   of   an   algae "bloom",    the    visible    outburst    of    algae. These    algae    can    appear    green,    brown, black,   mustard   or   even   pink   in   color.   By the    time    algae    has    bloomed    there    are millions   of   algae   cells   in   every   gallon   of water!   Your   professional   pool   dealer   or serviceman    has    a    variety    of    algaecides for   all   kinds   of   algae   and   will   recommend the   best   choice   for   either   prevention   or killing needs PRODUCT LIST STABILIZED CHLORINATING TABLETS (3" Size) * Slow dissolving, 89% available chlorine, 7 oz. wrapped tablets, For use in Floaters, chlorinators, or skimmers. STABILIZED CHLORINATING TABLETS (1" Size) * Slow dissolving, 89% available chlorine, 1/2 oz. tablets, For use in Floaters or chlorinators. STABILIZED CHLORINATING STICKS (2" Diameter) * Slow dissolving, 89% available chlorine, 8 oz. sticks, For use in Floaters, chlorinators, or skimmers. STABILIZED CHLORINATING GRANULES . Fast dissolving, 62% available chlorine granules, 100% soluble, For hand feeding. BROMINATING TABLETS (1" Size) . Slow dissolving, 61% available bromine, alternative to chlorine, For use in brominators. UNSTABILIZED CHLORINATING GRANULES . Fast dissolving, 65% available chlorine granules, contains calcium, For hand Feeding. STABILIZER * Slow dissolving, 100% active granules, to prevent sunlight From lowering available chlorine in pool water. pH INCREASER * Fast dissolving, 100% active, to raise pH. pH DECREASER . Fast dissolving, 95% active, to lower pH TOTAL ALKALINITY INCREASER . Fast dissolving, 100% active Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate, to raise and stabilize pH. CALCIUM HARDNESS INCREASER * Fast dissolving, 100% active, to raise and balance calcium level. SHOCK TREATMENT . Fast dissolving, 65% available chlorine granules, to oxidize contaminants that build up during year. ALGAECIDES . A variety of maximum strength algaecides, to prevent and kill a broad range oF algae. Check with your dealer or serviceman for details. SPECIALTY CHEMICALS . A variety of specialties For clarifying, stain and scale control, filter or surface cleaning. Check with your dealer or serviceman For details. TROUBLESHOOTING Sometimes          even          the          most experienced     pool     managers     run     into problems          that          require          special treatments.    Here    are    a    number    of    the most           common           problems           and recommended actions. CLOUDY WATER Make    sure    the    filter    is    operating properly   and   the   correct   amount   of   filter media   has   been   used.   Adjust   the   pH,   if necessary,   to   7.2-7.8   and   SHOCK   treat   the water.   If   the   condition   does   not   improve try     adding     a     CLARIFIER     or     filter     aid. Continue     filtering     and     maintain     the required    level    of    chlorine.    If    your    pool water    is    "old"    and    has    a    high    level    of dissolved      solids      (calcium,      stabilizer, chlorides   and   other   salts)   you   may   need to   drain   a   portion   of   the   water   and   refill with      fresh      water.      Your      dealer      or serviceman    can    test    this    for    you    and advise the correct action. ALGAE There   are   many   types   of   algae   that can   infect   pool   water.   The   most   common types,    floating    or    clinging    green    algae, respond    quickly    to    a    SHOCK    treatment and       dose       of       maximum       strength ALGAECIDE.   Be   sure   to   adjust   the   pH,   if necessary,   to   7.2-7.8   before   shocking   and brush   all   pool   surfaces   to   expose   algae hiding    in    cracks    or    wrinkles.    Apply    the algaecide    the    next    day.    Pink    algae    and mustard       algae       require       extra       care because   they   both   tend   to   re-infect   pool water   very   easily.   Treat   pink   algae   in   the same   manner   as   already   outlined   but,   in addition,     sanitize     all     pool     parts     that come   in   contact   with   the   water,   such   as the       vacuum       hose       and       head,       by immersing   them   in   the   pool   during   the shock    treatment.    Treat    mustard    algae with     a     special     algaecide     designed     to combat   this   strain.   Clinging   black   algae that   tends   to   appear   as   dots   or   nodules can     be     treated     by     applying     a     slow dissolving   granular   algaecide   directly   on the    algae    and    by    brushing    the    algae vigorously    to    expose    it's    roots.    In    all cases   apply   the   ALGAECIDE   directly   into the pool as close to the algae as possible. COLORED WATER Reddish   or   brownish   colored   water   is usually      caused      by      oxidized      iron      or manganese.    Treat    the    pool    water    with STAIN    &    SCALE    REMOVER    to    coat    the minerals     and     prevent     the     oxidation process.      Greenish      or      bluish      colored water     is     usually     caused     by     oxidized copper.   Treat   the   condition   as   above   and consult   with   your   dealer   or   serviceman for   more   details.   Be   sure   not   to   confuse green,     slimy     water     that     indicates     an algae    infection    with    the    greenish    cast associated with copper. STAINS AND SCALE Stains     can     develop     when     colored water   is   left   unattended   or   when   metals such   as   coins   are   accidentally   left   in   the pool.   Scale   is   a   crusty   build   up   on   pool floors    and    walls    caused    by    excessive calcium   levels   and   high   pH.   Usually   both conditions   must   occur   for   scale   to   form. Both   stains   and   scale   can   be   controlled by   lowering   the   pH,   if   necessary,   and   by using       STAIN       AND       SCALE       REMOVER according to label directions. Severe   conditions,   especially   in   plastered pools,    may    require    an    "acid    wash",    a draining   and   cleaning   performed   by   your dealer or serviceman. CHLORINE:    TOO    HIGH    OR    TOO LOW Inability    to    hold    a    chlorine    reading usually    indicates    lack    of    STABILIZER    in the    water.    Have    your    water    tested    for STABILIZER   and   add   if   necessary.   Also   be sure   to   check   your   floater   or   chlorinator to     insure     a     supply     of     chlorine.     Low readings      could      signal      an      excessive chlorine   demand   that   is   not   being   met. In   this   case,   a   SHOCK   treatment   would be     appropriate.     Finally,     your     testing chemicals    (reagents)    may    be    old    and need   to   be   replenished.   Check   with   your dealer   or   serviceman   for   accurate   water testing.     A     high     chlorine     reading     that won't    dissipate    gradually    may    indicate too   much   chlorine   is   being   added   to   the water.   Check   your   floater   or   chlorinator and   make   the   necessary   adjustment.   On occasion    chloramines    (chlorine    reacted with    swimmer    waste)    can    develop    and cause    the    chlorine    reading    to    remain high.    In    this    case,    a    SHOCK    treatment corrects    the    condition    by    breaking    up the chloramines. WINTER CARE If    you    live    in    a    climate    that    requires winterization    of    your    pool    you    should follow these simple steps. 1.   Have   your   water   tested   professionally and   add   any   necessary   balancers   at   this time. 2.   Vacuum   the   pool   thoroughly   and   clean the filter. 3.    If    you    have    minerals,    high    calcium level,    or    a    new    plaster    pool    add    STAIN AND SCALE CONTROL directly to the water. 4.     While     the     pool     is     still     circulating, SHOCK it according to label direction    and    be    sure    to    distribute    the SHOCK evenly. 5.   Prevent   winter   algae   growth   by   adding ALGAECIDE the followingday. 6.   Lower   the   water   level   if   desired,   plug all lines and drain water from    the    equipment    to    prevent    freeze damage. 7.        Follow        all        equipment        makers recommendations for winter care. 8.   Add   pool   grade   anti-freeze   to   the   lines to prevent freezing. 9.   Cover   the   pool   with   either   a   mesh   or solid cover and fasten itsecurely. Consult   with   your   dealer   or   serviceman for the cover that is best foryour pool and for more details about winter care. SAFETY TIPS Your   pool   will   bring   years   of   safe   and enjoyable   swimming   if   you   follow   these simple rules. 1.   No   running,   pushing,   or   foolish   play   in or near the pool. 2.    No    diving    in    shallow    or    unmarked pools. 3.    Children    must    be    supervised    at    all times. 4.   Safety   fencing   should   be   added   (check local building codes). 5.   Keep   a   first   aid   kit   and   manual,   a   life ring,    and    a    pole    on    site    at    all    times. Browser Fixed Safe     handling     of     chemicals should also be the rule. 1.      Chlorine      products      emit      powerful chlorine gas and should never be opened indoors     and     when     opened,     avoid breathing fumes. 2.     Label     directions     for     use     must     be followed at all times. 3.     Do     not     mix     chemicals.     A     violent reaction can occur. 4. Never add water to chemicals. 5.     Read     all     warning     statements     on product labels. 6.    Do    not    take    advise    from    others    or experiment on your own. 7.   Store   all   chemicals   in   a   cool,   dry   place and keep sealed. 8.   Most   important   of   all,   KEEP   CHEMICALS AWAY FROM CHILDREN. ALGAECIDES: MANY CURES Algae   are   constantly   infecting   water through      airborne      contact      which      is accelerated    by    rain    and    wind.    If    algae spores   are      killed   off   as   they   enter   the water    by    using    repeated    algaestatic    or maintenance    doses    of    algaecides,    the incidents of alga bloom   are   effectively   eliminated.   This   is an         "insurance         policy"         approach compared    to    the    cost    of    treating    alga bloom. If   algae   does   bloom   (become   visible), then   the   best   approach   is   to   adjust   the pH=   7.2-7.8,   shock   treat   the   water   with   7- 10   ppm      of   available   chlorine,   brush   all surfaces    vigorously,    and    follow    with    a killing    dose    (    5x    maintenance    dose)    of algaecide. Continue     to     filter     and     backwash,     if necessary, during the entire episode. According     to     the     United     States     EPA (Environmental     Protection     Agency)     all approved     algaecides     prevent     and     kill most   strains   of   algae.   There   is   no   rule   or clear-cut      order      to      determine      which algaecide   to   use,   so   choosing   algaecides is similar to choosing     medicines.     Start     with     your favored   choice   and   proceed   from   there. If algae persists, try another choice. Here   are   the   algaecide   choices and their characteristics: QUAT    TYPE    :    This    is    the    nickname    for Quaternary     ammonium     chloride.     It     is economical,      long-lasting,      non-staining (non-metallic),           excellent           wetting properties         (penetrates         microscopic cracks).     Will     foam     if     overdosed.     Best used    for    floating    green,    clinging    green and    pink    algae.    POLYMER    TYPE        This    is the   nickname   for   an   organic   polymer.   It is    fairly    expensive,    very    long    lasting, non-staining,             and             non-foaming. Manufacturer    data    suggests    it    is    more stable    in    the    presence    of    high    chlorine than   "quats."   Best   used   for   black   (Dark green complex) and pink algae. COPPER       TYPE       This       is       a       chelated (controlled)    copper    solution.    It    is    very economical,    very    long    lasting,    and    non foaming.     Can     cause     blue     staining     or "green"   hair.   Best   used   for   floating   green and   mustard   algae.   SILVER   TYPE   .   This   is   a silver    colloid    (controlled)    solution.    It    is very   expensive,   short   lived   (curative   use only),   and   non   foaming.   Can   cause   brown staining    if    mis-handled.    Best    used    for black     and     mustard     algae.     All     other approved     algaecides     are     dilutions     or blends of these four types. ACID         &         BASE         DEMAND CALCULATIONS Don't    overlook    the    importance    of performing    Base    Demand    Tests    if    your pH   is   6.8   or   lower   and   Acid   Demand   Tests if your pH is 8.2 or higher. Many      water      samples      are      being reported   with   pH--   6.8   when,   in   fact,   the true   pH   might   be   5.0-6.5!   Taking   time   to perform   the   Base   Demand   Test   will   take the   guess   work   out   of   adjusting   the   pH. Look at the difference: pH   Reading               Amount   of   Product   Needed to Attain pH=7.5 6.8                           1.5   lbs.   Sodium   Carbonate   per 10,000 gallons 6.5                           4.5   lbs.   Sodium   Carbonate   per 10,000 gallons 6.0                        10-12   lbs.   Sodium   Carbonate   per 10,000 gallons If     a     pool     owner     uses     1.5     lbs.     of Sodium    Carbonate    when    5    or    10    lbs.    is actually    required,    the    pH    reading    will still appear as 6.8. Rule    of    thumb:    For    each    drop    of    Base Demand,   use   one-third   (1/3)   lb.   of   Sodium Carbonate per 10,000 gallons. The     calculation     for     Acid     Demand reveals   a   similar   pattern   with   an   extra complication   related   to   the   level   of   Total Alkalinity.   This   is   especially   true   in   hard water    areas    and    with    curing    plastered pools.   An   extra   amount   of   acid   may   be needed to lower the both Total Alkalinity and pH. pH    Reading                            Amount    of    Dry    Acid Needed to Attain pH= 7.5 8.2                                 1.5   lbs.   Dry   Acid   per   10,000 gallons 8.5                                 4-5   lbs.   Dry   Acid   per   10,000 gallons 9.0                        10-12   lbs.   Dry   Acid   per   10,000 gallons For   those   who   prefer   Muriatic   Acid, the   conversion   factor   from   Dry   Acid   to Muriatic Acid (Hydrochloric Acid) is: 10    lbs.    of    Dry    Acid    --    One    (1)    Gallon    of Muriatic Acid Because   of   the   connection   between high    pH    and    high    Total    Alkalinity    the following         information         should         be considered.        The                most        common technique   to   reduce   Total   Alkalinity   is   to pour      Muriatic      Acid      in      a      series      of "pockets"    in    the    deep    end    of    a    pool, keeping   away   from   the   walls   and   floor,   if possible.   Use   of   Muriatic   Acid   seems   to reduce   Total   Alkalinity   with   less   impact on pH than use of Dry Acid. Rule   of   thumb:   1   Gallon   of   Muriatic   Acid reduces    60    ppm    of    Total    Alkalinity    in 10,000 gallons. ALGAE: SOME STUBBORN FACTS Algae,    algae,    algae...    green,    black, mustard,     and     pink.     Why     do     you     use algaecides?    When    do    you    dose?    Which one?    How    much?    These    questions    are asked   over   and   over   again.   It   seems   that everyone   has   their   own   opinions   about algae   control   and   here   are   some   of   the most widely held beliefs: Algaecides        are        not        necessary because    chlorine    kills    all.    This    may    be true    in    theory,    but    the    chlorine    level must   be   kept   high   at   all   times   (3   ppm   or higher)    and    not    permitted    to    slip.    This can        be        expensive,        irritating        to swimmers,       will       lead       to       bleached swimwear      and      vinyl      liners,      and      is difficult      to      maintain.      Even      in      high chlorine,      some      algae      "habitate"      or become   accustomed   to   a   steady   level.   In tropical   areas,   for   example,   black   algae sets   "roots"   and   seals   itself   with   a   tar- like    coating    that    is    unaffected    by    high levels     of     chlorine.     Mustard     algae     is another    algae    that    seems    to    thrive    in chlorinated water. Algaecides   are   killers   and   Algaestats are   preventatives.   This   may   be   true   by definition    but    one    product    does    both jobs.    The    EPA    does    not    recognize    the difference   between   killing   visible   algae (Algaecide)     and     killing     invisible     algae (Algaestat).   Invisible   algae   sounds   like   a contradiction   but,   in   fact,   thousands   of algae    are    growing    before    they    become visible in an algae bloom. Algae   doesn't   grow   in   low   pH   water. Not    true.    The    most    common    types    of algae    such    as    "planktonic    blue-greens" prefer   pH=7.4-9.0.   but   many   types   live   in pH--      5.0-7.0.      During      periods      of      hot weather          and          intense          sunlight, photosynthesis    is    at    its    peak.    As    algae grow,   carbon   dioxide   (food   for   algae)   is withdrawn    from    the    water    and    the    pH drifts   upward.   It   is   most   common   to   see a green pool with a pH-- 8.0. Algae    doesn't    grow    in    cold    water. Temperatures     have     to     drop     to     near freezing      before      algae      move      into      a dormant     state.     Studies     in     the     Arctic Circle    indicate    that    as    long    as    light    is present algae will grow. Algae    can    be    filtered    out    of    water. This   is   true   for   "colonies"   of   algae   that are   visible   in   the   water,   but   is   not   true for    single    ceil    algae,    for    example,    that exist        as        small        as        0.5        micron. Diatomaceous   earth   (DE)   filters   particles down      to      1-3      microns,      sand      filters particles       down       to       15-20       microns, cartridge   filters   particles   down   to   about 20   microns.   Generally,   if   you   can   see   it, you can filter it. CHELATORS & SEQUESTRANTS The    word    CHELATE    is    derived    from the   Greek   word   for   "claw".   In   pool   and spa   chemistry   chelate   means   a   chemical treatment    to    control    or    "coat"    soluble metal    ions    and    prevent    their    oxidation into    unwanted    colored    precipitates.    A chelator    attaches    to    a    metal    ion    like copper   or   iron   and   wraps   around   it   like   a claw. There    are    many    types    of    chelators available   in   the   market.   Among   the   most widely   used   is   a   group   of   organic   acids called      "amino      polycarboxylic      acids". These   chemicals   are   usually   formulated into   liquids   that   quickly   attach   to   copper or   iron   ions   and   deactivate   them.   Please note    that    chelators    will    not    react    with metals      such      as      finely      divided      iron shavings   and   they   react   very   slowly   with metals     that     are     already     oxidized     or precipitated. Sequestrants   differ   from   chelators   in the     way     they     "coat"     or     react     with mineral      ions.      Sequestrants      generally have   a   few   active   sites   on   each   molecule allowing   it   to   control   two   or   more   metal ions      at      a      time.      Because      of      this, sequestrants are often more   powerful   as   stain   removers   and   are often    sold    with    specific    stain    removal directions. FACTS     ABOUT     CHELATORS     & SEQUESTRANTS Many     chelators     and     sequestrants have     metal     ION     PREFERENCES     called "displacements".        This        means        that certain   metal   ions   will   be   coated   before others.   The   usual   preference   is   iron,   then copper,   then   manganese,   then   calcium, then    magnesium.    There    are    chelators that favor calcium first. The   EFFECTIVENESS   of   chelators   and sequestrants    to    coat    undesired    metal ions   depends   on   the   concentration   of   the ions    to    be    chelated.    For    example,    it    is easier   to   control   1   ppm   of   copper   and   1 ppm    of    iron    in    soft    water    (50    ppm    of calcium) than in   hard   water   (350   ppm   of   calcium).   The presence   of   350   ppm   of   calcium   in   water, for   example,   will   occupy   a   large   portion of   the   chelator   intended   to   control   the copper   and   iron.   With   this   in   mind   it   is advisable      to      chelate      or      sequester undesired     metal     ions     before     adding calcium to the water. The       AMOUNT       of       chelator       or sequestrant   needed   depends   on   the   type of     metal     ions     present.     For     example, copper,   iron,   and   manganese   all   require about     the     same     amount     of     chelator whereas     calcium     requires     50%     more chelator.   Reactions   to   control   metal   ions occur within seconds in most cases. Chelators    and    sequestrants    are    PH AND    OXIDIZER    sensitive.    Very    low    pH, occurring   in   a   "pocket"   of   water   where acid   has   been   added,   can   cause   loss   of chelation.   Very   high   pH,   again   a   "pocket" effect,    can    also    cause    chelation    failure and     precipitation     of     copper     or     iron. Because           most           chelators           and sequestrants   are   organic   molecules,   they are    subject    to    attack    by    high    levels    of oxidizers   and   "wear   off'   over   time.   This is    the    reason    that    most    product    labels state    that    continued    additions    may    be necessary   to   control   metals.   With   this   in mind,       it       is       obvious       that       shock treatments     should     not     be     performed directly   after   chelators   or   sequestrants have been added. TEMPERATURE    and    TDS    (Total    Dissolved Solids)   have   slight   effects   on   chelation. According   to   manufacturer   studies,   high temperature   and   high   TDS   increase   the amount      of      chelator      or      sequestrant needed. METAL CONTROL TECHNIQUES Soluble   metal   ions   such   as   copper   or   iron can    exist    in    water    in    three    different forms. They are: 1)   Unreacted   ions.   Colorless   but   ready   to react in some manner such as oxidation. 2)     Ions     already     reacted     but     not     yet precipitated.     Colored     water     but     not staining. 3)   Ions   already   reacted   and   precipitated. Clear water but stained surfaces. There   are   four   different   techniques used    to    control    metals    depending    on their   state   as   shown   above.   The   control techniques are: Chemical         chelators   or   sequestrants   pH control. The use of acids or alkalis Chemical    reduction.    The    use    of    strong anti-oxidizers              Chlorination              or oxidationChelators       and       sequestrants chemically   coat   ions   in   any   of   the   three states.   Effectiveness   varies   based   on   pH, sanitizer    level,    calcium    level,    depth    of stain and amount of stain. An   acid   wash   is   an   extreme   example of    pH    control.    Strong    acid    breaks    the bonds   of   reacted   ions   and   releases   the ions   to   the   unreacted   state.   Strong   alkali such   as   sodium   carbonate   can   bond   with unreacted        ions        to        form        cloudy precipitates   which   can   be   easily   filtered or flocked and vacuumed to waste. Chemical   reduction   is   the   opposite   of oxidation.   It   can   be   used   effectively   to reverse   reacted   iron   either   in   the   colored or   precipitated   states.   Reduction   brings the iron back to the unreacted state. Under               certain               conditions chlorination   or   other   forms   of   oxidation such   as   granular   oxygen   compounds   or ozonation,   are   used   to   produce   a   cloudy precipitate     that     is     easily     filtered     or flocked and vacuumed to waste. Metal Control Products Product Type: Chelator  Sequestrant  Reduction  Oxidation  Chlorination  Trade Name Example Chonchelate, Metal Out  Sequest, Stain Off, Spa Demineralizer  Conquest  Demineralizer  Shock II, Sho2X  Hit Hard, More Chlor CYANURIC ACID TESTING The   Cyanuric   Acid   (Stabilizer)   test   is perhaps     the     most     inconsistent     water test   performed.   Some   of   the   problems   of reporting      and      reproducing      accurate Cyanuric Acid readings are: 1)    Temperature    of    the    sample.    Try    to keep   and   test   the   water   sample   at   room        temperature.   The   colder   the   water,   the lower the test resuIt. 2)     Waiting     time     before     reading.     Be consistent      at      the      recommended      30 seconds    before    …. reading.    The    shorter the    time    interval,    the    lower    the    test result. 3)    Viewing    tube    cloudiness.    Due    to    a reaction     with     the     Cyanuric     reagent, Viewing    ,,,, Tubes    become    cloudy    over    a period   of   a   few   months.   Be   sure   to   rinse the    Viewing    Tube    carefully    after    each use. Cloudy tubes are hard to read. 4)   Reading   higher   levels   of   Cyanuric   Acid. The   markings   of   60,   80,   and   100   ppm   level …. on   …. the   Viewing   Tube   are   increasingly close   together.   Only   a   fraction   of   an   inch …. separates   …. the   60   ppm   mark   from   the 100 ppm mark. Rather than guess in this …. higher   range,   redo   the   test   by   diluting the   water   sample   in   half   with   tap   water to    …. put    …. the    test    result    in    a    more readable      range.      Then      double      your reading   to   more   …. accurately   report   the Cyanuric    Acid    level.    Always    dilute    the water   sample   and   redo   …. the   test   when over 100 ppm. An    interesting    problem    with    Cyanuric Acid     results     is     that     high     levels     of Cyanuric      Acid      notably      affects      Total Alkalinity.        When        measuring        Total Alkalinity follow this formula: Total    Alkalinity    -    (Cyanuric    Acid    level    x .30) = True Total Alkalinity THE    FUNGUS    (Dark    Stains    On Liners) During   the   past   four   years   a   small, but    growing    number    of    above    ground and    in    ground    vinyl    liner    pools    have developed    dark    colored    stains    that    do not       respond       to       normal       chemical treatments   such   as   shock   treatments   or algaecides.     Nor     can     these     stains     be brushed   off   or   scraped   off.   They   appear to   be   caused   by   unusual   fungus   attacks. In     many     cases     these     stains     can     be bleached   out   for   a   time   ranging   from   one week   up   to   two   years   (depending   on   the severity   of   the   stain)   using   the   following procedure: 1) Adjust the pH, if necessary, to 7.2-7.8 2)     Adjust     the     Total     Alkalinity,     if necessary to 100-150 ppm 3)    Turn    off    the    filtration    system    and allow the water to sit. 4)   Prior   to   this   step   it   is   very   important to               note   that   Trichloro   Granules   should not   contact   the   vinyl   liner   for   more   than fifteen   (15)   minutes   in   order   to   prevent the   …. vinyl   liner   from   bleaching!   Pour   2 lbs.     of     Nuclo     QUICK     KILL     or     Ortex TRICHLORO     GRANULAR     or     equivalent directly on the affected areas. 5)   Spread   the   granules   evenly   over   the stains   and   allow   direct   contact   for   7-10 minutes.                                          Then   push   the   granular   pile   to   the   next affected   area   with   a   wide   pool   brush.   For stains   in   sloped   areas,   pour   granules   into a   deep-pocket   leaf   net   and   …. allow   the net   to   lie   on   the   affected   area   for   7-10 minutes.    If    granules    fail    through    …. the mesh    of    the    leaf    net,    an    alternative approach    is    to    pour    about    1/2    lb.    of …. granules    into    the    toe    of    nylon    panty hose.   Nylon   hose   has   a   much   finer   mesh …. construction.       In       any       event,       the granules   must   not   contact   the   vinyl   liner for   more   …. than   fifteen   (15)   minutes   in order    to    prevent    the    vinyl    liner    from bleaching.   Please   test   this   procedure   on a    small    area    to    determine    your    vinyl liner's       reactivity.       When       the       stain removal procedure       is       complete,       start       the filtration      system      and      vacuum      the remaining granules in the filter. NITRIFICATION      &      CHLORINE DEMAND How   green   is   a   green   pool?   When   is   a normal   shock   treatment   the   correct   dose compared   to   a   treatment   3x   normal?   Or 5x? These           questions           test           the imagination   of   anyone   who   is   asked   to describe     a     "green     pool."     Maybe     one should     be     asked,     "Can     you     see     the shallow   end   bottom,   the   hopper,   or   even the deep end bottom?" WHAT IS NITRIFICATION? If    green    is    really    green,    it's    a    good bet    that    nitrification    has    taken    place. Nitrification   is   a   micro   biological   process in   which   ammonia   (NH3)is   converted   by oxidation    into    nitrite    (N02)    and    nitrate (N03).   This   process   is   carried   out   by   two bacteria    known    as    Nitrosomonas    .    But first,     ammonia     must     be     formed.     The sources   of   ammonia   are   quite   plentiful: inorganic   fertilizers,   plant   protein   decay (leaves    etc.)    and    animal    protein    decay (bugs         etc.)         Specialized         bacteria decompose   the   proteins   into   ammonia   in part     of     an     ongoing     cycle     called     the NITROGEN     CYCLE.     (see     Nitrogen     Cycle Chart).   Nitrosomonas,   in   turn,   get   their energy   or   "food"   from   the   newly   created ammonia      and      carbon      dioxide,      both present   in   the   water.   Once   nitrification begins,    an    accelerating    cycle    develops. The     nitrates,     once     formed,     are     great algae       nutrients!       And       as       nitrates accumulate,   algae   bloom   and   the   water turns     greener     and     greener.     As     the Nitrogen     Cycle     progresses,     more     and more    plant    life    becomes    available    for further      bacterial      decomposition      into more and more ammonia. WHAT ARE THE EFFECTS? Nitrification         leads         to         water conditions   that   range   from   slight   odor   to major     algae     bloom.     These     conditions have    been    observed    in    both    swimming pools     and     in     municipal     waste     water treatment   systems.   The   color   can   range from   a   light   green   tint   to   an   emerald   or dark     green,     or     even     a     black.     Water clarity   can   range   from   a   hazy   deep   end   to almost    solid    color    at    a    depth    of    a    few inches. WHAT                  CONDITIONS                  FAVOR NITRIFICATION? The   primary   influence   is   the   level   of ammonia   present.   And   this   level,   in   turn, depends    on    the    level    of    decomposing plant      and      animal      life,      and      certain fertilizers.      A      second      factor      is      pH, especially   in   the   range   of   pH=   7.5-8.5.   A third   factor   is   water   temperature   in   the range   of70-85F.   A   fourth   factor   is   periods of    extended    darkness    (covered    pools) followed       by       exposure       to       sunlight (promotes     algae     growth).     Clearly     the "worst    case    scenario"    is    a    pool    that    is carelessly     winterized     (not     cleaned     or vacuumed,       little       or       no       sanitizer added),poorly    covered    (rips,    pin    holes, too   small   etc.),   and   left   covered   late   into the   spring   (long   incubation   and   warming water). WHAT CAN BE DONE? Testing      for      Nitrification      is      too complicated   for   a   single   test   such   as   a nitrate    test    (being    used    by    some    pool dealers     to     identify     the     problem).     A nitrate   test   will   only   test   one   part   of   the cycle.   Research   *   indicates,   for   example, that      Nitrosomonas      bacteria      secrete organic        compounds        that        actually stimulate   the   growth   of   other   types   of bacteria.   A   test   for   these   bacteria   would be       needed       too.       Data       from       the Metropolitan    Water    District    of    So.    Cal. shows   5-10   ppm   of   chlorine   effective   in controlling      mild      nitrification.      Severe cases   can   require   25-50   ppm   of   chlorine (5x      shock      treatment)      and      repeated treatments in some cases.
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Hartsell Pool Renovations
Hartsell Pool Renovations
Hartsell Pool Renovations
Hartsell Pool Renovations